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法医学杂志 2018, Vol. 34 Issue (3) :294-298    DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2018.03.015
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接触DNA在侦查实践中的应用
卢  璇1,2,徐  珍2,牛青山1,凃  政2
1. 中国刑事警察学院,辽宁 沈阳 110035; 2. 公安部物证鉴定中心,北京 100038
Application of Touch DNA in Investigation Practice
LU Xuan1,2, XU Zhen2, NIU Qing-shan1, TU Zheng2
1. Chinese Criminal Police Academy, Shenyang 110035, China; 2. Institute of Forensic Science, Ministry of Public Security, PRC, Beijing 100038, China

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摘要 随着DNA提取和检验技术的进步与不断发展,犯罪现场遗留的DNA对于刑事犯罪侦查中犯罪嫌疑人的确定有着举足轻重的作用,但同时犯罪嫌疑人的反侦察意识越来越强,在作案过程中以及实施犯罪行为后遗留在现场的物证微乎其微。因此在对现场物证进行采集的过程中,接触性生物物证的发现、提取和DNA检出越来越重要。目前在犯罪现场中接触性检材所占的比例越来越大,对于案件的侦破也发挥着越来越大的作用。然而这些接触性检材一般极其微量、体积小、较为隐蔽、肉眼不易观察,且现场的各种污染大大加快了这种微量检材的降解速率,因此对于这类检材的检验和分析就成了法医物证检验工作的重点和难点。本文综述了接触DNA的种类、采集和提取方法,影响其检出的因素以及检验中遇到的问题,以期能更好地将其运用到法医学鉴定实践中。
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卢璇
徐珍
牛青山
关键词法医遗传学   DNA   综述   接触DNA     
Abstract: With the continuous development of DNA extraction and testing technology, the DNA left at a crime scene plays a decisive role in the determination of criminal suspects in criminal investigation. But in the meanwhile, the anti-reconnaissance awareness of suspect is growing, which leads to a decrease of evidence left at scene during and after a crime. Therefore, in the process of evidence collection at scene, the finding and extraction of touch biological evidence, and the DNA detection are more and more important. At present, the proportion of touch evidence at the crime scene increases, which plays an increasingly important role in the detection of cases. However, with the characteristics of minute quantities, small size and secrecy, these touch evidence is difficult to be observed. What’s more, various forms of pollution at the scene greatly accelerate the degradation rate of trace material, thus, the test and analysis of such material has become the emphasis and difficulty of the forensic evidence identification. This article reviews different kinds, collection and extraction methods of touch DNA, the factors that affect the detection and the problems may meet in the detection for providing an application prospect to the forensic practice.
Keywordsforensic genetics   DNA   review   touch DNA     
Fund:中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费资助项目(2017JB029)
Corresponding Authors: 凃政,男,主任法医师,主要从事法医遗传学研究;E-mail:tudou0426@sina.com   
About author: 卢璇(1992—),女,硕士研究生,主要从事法医物证学研究;E-mail:986763977@qq.com
引用本文:   
卢璇,徐珍,牛青山,等.接触DNA在侦查实践中的应用[J]  法医学杂志, 2018,34(3): 294-298
LU Xuan, XU Zhen, NIU Qing-shan,et al .Application of Touch DNA in Investigation Practice[J]  , 2018,34(3): 294-298
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