25 April 2021, Volume 37 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
Correlation between the Polymorphism of Coagulation-Related Genes and Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis
JIANG Yao-ru, NIU Lei-lei, FENG Na, et al.
2021, 37(2): 145-150,157.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2019.491213
Abstract ( 46 )   PDF (1568KB) ( 39 )  
Objective To investigate the correlation between the polymorphism of 4 coagulation-related genes, rs1799963 (coagulation factor V gene Leiden), rs6025 (prothrombin gene G20210A), rs1042579 (thrombomodulin protein gene c.1418C>T) and rs1801131 (methylenetetrahydroflate reductase gene) and lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (LEDVT). Methods The 4 genotypes mentioned above of 150 LEDVT patients and 153 healthy controls were detected by the kompetitive allele specific polymerase chain reaction (KASP), then related blood biochemical indicators were collected, binary Logistic regression was established to screen the independent risk factors of LEDVT, and the correlation between polymorphism of 4 coagulation-related genes and LEDVT and its indicators under different genetic modes after adjusting confounding factors were analyzed. Results Five variables, D-dimer, fibrinogen degradation product, homocysteine, sex and age might be the risk factors of LEDVT. These variables were put into 4 genetic inheritance models, and adjusted in binary Logistic regression. The results suggested that the mutations of rs1042579 were correlated with LEDVT under dominant inheritance mode. Conclusion The gene polymorphism of rs1799963, rs6025 and rs1801131 has no significant correlation with the formation of LEDVT. The gene polymorphism of rs1042579 plays a role under dominant inheritance mode, and might be an independent risk factor for formation of LEDVT.
Related Articles | Metrics
Relationship between Wound Age and Serum Marker Metabolites of Rats Skin Incised Wound
TIAN Tian, LI Xue-rong, ZHAI Hao-jie, et al.
2021, 37(2): 151-157.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.400406
Abstract ( 19 )   PDF (1378KB) ( 26 )  
Objective To observe the metabolomics changes of serum after skin incision of rats and to determine the wound age of skin incision. Methods A rat skin incision model was established, 21 SD rats were divided into 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 16 h, 24 h after skin incision groups and the control group, then blood was taken from rats in the experimental groups at the corresponding time points after injury, and taken from the control group directly. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology was used to detect serum metabolites and screen marker metabolites, then orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was used to establish a regression model for the relationship between marker metabolite content and wound age to determine wound age of skin. Results GC-MS was used to detect the serum collected, and 21 marker metabolites were obtained through initial screening, and 4 marker metabolites were further analyzed and screened using multivariate statistical analysis methods. There was no correspondence between the change rule of the serum content and wound age, therefore it cannot be used directly to determine wound age. OPLS model could be used to obtain regression models of the content and wound age of 21 marker metabolites and 4 marker metabolites, both of which can determine wound age, but the prediction accuracy of the regression model of 21 marker metabolites was significantly higher. Conclusion Using metabolomics to establish a regression model of the metabolite content and wound age has the potential to be applied to skin incision wound age determination.
Related Articles | Metrics
Skin Ultrastructure and the Changes of HIF-2α, H-FABP Expression in the Myocardium of Electric Shock Death Rats
FENG Guo-wei, LIU Xia, QI Qian, et al.
2021, 37(2): 158-165.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.400321
Abstract ( 19 )   PDF (11469KB) ( 21 )  
Objective To observe the skin ultrastructure change of electric shock death rats and to test the expression changes of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) and heart type-fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) of myocardial cells, in order to provide basis for forensic identification of electric shock death. Methods The electric shock model of rats was established. The 72 rats were randomly divided into control group, electric shock death group and postmortem electric shock group. Each group was divided into three subgroups, immediate (0 min), 30 min and 60 min after death. The skin changes of rats were observed by HE staining, the changes of skin ultrastructure were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the expression of HIF-2α and H-FABP in rats myocardium was tested by immunohistochemical staining. Results The skin in the electric shock death group and postmortem electric shock group had no significant difference through the naked eye or by HE staining. Under the scanning electron microscope, a large number of cellular debris, cells with unclear boundaries, withered cracks, circular or elliptical holes scattered on the cell surface and irregular edges were observed. A large number of spherical foreign body particles were observed. Compared with the control group, the expression of HIF-2α in all electric shock death subgroups increased, reaching the peak immediately after death. In the postmortem electric shock group, HIF-2α expression only increased immediately after death, but was lower than that of electric shock death group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the expression of H-FABP in all subgroups of electric shock death group and postmortem electric shock group significantly decreased. The expression of H-FABP in all subgroups of electric shock death group was lower than that of the postmortem electric shock group (P<0.05). Conclusion Electric shock can increase HIF-2α expression and decrease H-FABP expression in the myocardium, which may be of forensic significance for the determination of electric shock death and identification of antemortem and postmortem electric shock.
Related Articles | Metrics
Metabolomics Changes of Serum and Tissues in Mice Died of Acute Tetracaine Poisoning
LIU Wen-qiao, BAI Rui, MA Chun-ling, et al.
2021, 37(2): 166-174.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.401006
Abstract ( 14 )   PDF (4411KB) ( 32 )  
Objective To study the changes of metabolites in serum and tissues (kidney, liver and heart) of mice died of acute tetracaine poisoning by metabolomics, to search for potential biomarkers and related metabolic pathways, and to provide new ideas for the identification of cause of death and research on toxicological mechanism of acute tetracaine poisoning. Methods Forty ICR mice were randomly divided into control group and acute tetracaine poisoning death group. The model of death from acute poisoning was established by intraperitoneal injection of tetracaine, and the metabolic profile of serum and tissues of mice was obtained by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-Orbitrap HRMS). Multivariate statistical principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used, combined with t-test and fold change to identify the differential metabolites associated with death from acute tetracaine poisoning. Results Compared with the control group, the metabolic profiles of serum and tissues in the mice from acute tetracaine poisoning death group were significantly different. Eleven differential metabolites were identified in serum, including xanthine, spermine, 3-hydroxybutylamine, etc.; twenty-five differential metabolites were identified in liver, including adenylate, adenosine, citric acid, etc.; twelve differential metabolites were identified in heart, including hypoxanthine, guanine, guanosine, etc; four differential metabolites were identified in kidney, including taurochenodeoxycholic acid, 11, 12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, dimethylethanolamine and indole. Acute tetracaine poisoning mainly affected purine metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as metabolism of alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Conclusion The differential metabolites in serum and tissues of mice died of acute tetracaine poisoning are expected to be candidate biomarkers for this cause of death. The results can provide research basis for the mechanism and identification of acute tetracaine poisoning.
Related Articles | Metrics
Development of Dermestes Maculatus at a Constant Temperature and Its Larval Instar Determination
LI Liang-liang, WANG Yu, LI Xue-bo, et al.
2021, 37(2): 175-180.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2019.491006
Abstract ( 13 )   PDF (1141KB) ( 15 )  
Objective To establish the basic data for estimating minimum postmortem interval (PMImin) of heavily decayed and skeletonized remains by studying the development of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Methods The developmental stages of Dermestes maculatus were observed at four constant temperatures of 20 ℃, 24 ℃, 28 ℃ and 32 ℃, and the changes in body length were also examined as the biological indicator to estimate larval day-age and instar. Results The total developmental time from egg to adult at 20 ℃, 24 ℃, 28 ℃ and 32 ℃ were (126.7±10.6) d, (69.4±8.2) d, (50.4±8.4) d and (49.6±6.5) d, respectively. The body length increased gradually, but changed irregularly as a whole. Conclusion The study provides basic data on the development and growth of Dermestes maculatus, especially on its developmental duration as a significant value for estimating PMImin of heavily decayed and skeletonized remains. Nevertheless, the change of body length is not found to be the best biological indicator for instar determination.
Related Articles | Metrics
Accuracy of Nolla Method for Age Estimation of Northern Chinese Han Children
JIA Si-xuan, HAN Meng-qi, WANG Chen-xu, et al.
2021, 37(2): 181-186.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.200409
Abstract ( 18 )   PDF (633KB) ( 23 )  
Objective To study the accuracy of Nolla method for age estimation of Northern Chinese Han children aged between 5.00 and 14.99 years based on original transformation tables and multiple regression model. Methods A total of 2 000 orthopantomographs (OPGs) were collected from the Hospital of Stomatology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, including 1 000 males and 1 000 females. Development stage of 7 left mandibular permanent teeth (except third molars) was assessed based on Nolla method, then age estimation was conducted through transformation tables and multiple regression model, respectively. Firstly, the development stage results of 7 permanent teeth were added up and the estimated age was obtained through the original transformation tables. Secondly, 80% of the samples (80 males and 80 females in each age group) were randomly selected from 2 000 OPGs as the train set. The chronological age of the selected patients was taken as the dependent variable, while gender and the development stage results of 7 permanent teeth were taken as the independent variable to establish multiple regression model. The remaining 20% of the samples were substituted into the model as the test set, to verify the accuracy of age estimation by multiple regression model. Results Mean chronological ages of males and females were 10.03±0.09 years and 10.01±0.09 years, respectively. The age estimated by original transformation tables showed an overestimation for males (0.18 years on average) and an underestimation for females (0.02 years on average), with mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.94 years and 0.97 years, respectively. While the results by multiple regression model showed that males were overestimated by 0.06 years on average and females were underestimated by 0.02 years on average. The MAE was 0.66 years and 0.77 years, respectively. Conclusion The Nolla method is suitable for age estimation of Northern Chinese Han children. Compared with the original transformation tables method, the multiple regression model is more accurate for age estimation.
Related Articles | Metrics
Identification of Cannabis Sativa L. Based on rbcL Sequence
XIA Ruo-cheng, ZHANG Xiao-chun, WANG Xiao-xiao, et al.
2021, 37(2): 187-191.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.501004
Abstract ( 10 )   PDF (1458KB) ( 9 )  
Objective To assess the feasibility of the rbcL sequence of chloroplast DNA as a genetic marker to identify Cannabis sativa L. Methods The rbcL sequences in 62 Cannabis sativa L. samples, 10 Humulus lupulus samples and 10 Humulus scandens DNA samples were detected, and 96 rbcL sequences of the Cannabaceae family were downloaded from Genbank. Sequence alignment was performed by MEGA X software, the intraspecific and interspecific Kimura-2-Parameter (K2P) genetic distances were calculated, and the system clustering tree was constructed. Results The rbcL sequence length acquired by sequencing of Cannabis sativa L. and Humulus scandens were 617 bp and 649 bp, respectively, and two haplotypes of Cannabis sativa L. were observed in the samples. The BLAST similarity search results showed that the highest similarity between the sequences acquired by sequencing and Cannabis sativa L. rbcL sequences available from Genbank was 100%. The genetic distance analysis showed that the maximum intraspecific genetic distance (0.004 9) of Cannabis sativa L. was less than the minimum interspecific genetic distance (0.012 9). The results of median-joining network and system clustering tree analysis showed that Cannabis sativa L. and other members of the Cannabaceae family were located in different branches. Conclusion The rbcL sequence could be used as a DNA barcode for identifying Cannabis sativa L., and combined with comparative analysis of the rbcL sequence and system cluster analysis could be a reliable and effective detection method for Cannabis sativa L. identification in forensic investigation.
Related Articles | Metrics
Bibliometric Analysis of Forensic Genetics Literatures in SCIE from 1989 to 2019
ZHANG Xing-ru, HE Yong-feng, ZHANG Yun-ying, et al.
2021, 37(2): 192-205.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.500903
Abstract ( 27 )   PDF (4565KB) ( 31 )  
Objective To conduct bibliometric analysis of forensic genetics literatures published by Chinese mainland scholars in SCIE journals from 1989 to 2019, to show the research achievements of the past three decades and predict future research fields and directions. Methods Microsoft Office Excel 2019 was utilized to analyze the general situation, research institutions, authors, funds, author keywords, etc. of the literatures. The status of research in forensic genetics in Chinese mainland was visualized by PlotDB, Gephi 0.9.2 software and literature interpretation. Results During the last three decades, 1 126 forensic genetics literatures were published by scholars from Chinese mainland on SCIE journals, mostly articles. The quantity and quality of the literatures were both on the increase. The number of literatures published in Forensic Science International-Genetics was the highest, and 60.83% of the literatures were funded, mainly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (498 literatures). The current research hotspots were STR, SNP, InDel polymorphisms, linkage genetic markers, mtDNA genetic markers, epigenetic markers, RNA genetic markers, chip technology and omics research method. Conclusion The forensic genetics in China has developed rapidly along with the promotion of forensic science in universities. The SCIE literatures on forensic genetics published by Chinese mainland scholars increased rapidly with the funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China and Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China, which positively contributes to the development of basic research and the improvement of overall level in forensic genetics in China.
Related Articles | Metrics
Retrospective Analysis on Traumatic Rupture of Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery in 11 Cases
DU Yu, ZHANG Zhen-yu, QIU Yang, et al.
2021, 37(2): 206-210,216.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.400331
Abstract ( 32 )   PDF (1999KB) ( 22 )  
Objective To retrospectively analyze the characteristics of the traumatic rupture of intracranial internal carotid artery in order to provide reference for forensic expertise examination and identification. Methods A total of 11 autopsy cases of traumatic rupture of intracranial internal carotid artery were collected. The gender, age, cause of injury, blood loss on the scene, location of internal carotid artery rupture, hardening degree of the rupture of the wall, brain injury, blood ethanol content and cause of death were also recorded. Results All 11 cases died on the scene, of which 7 died from traffic accidents, 2 falls from height and 2 from bare handed injuries. None of the 11 victims suffered serious head and body surface injury. The internal carotid artery rupture in the 9 cases of traffic injury and fall from height injury occurred in the cavernous segment. In all these cases, there were transverse fractures of the middle cranial fossa with the carotid sulcus involved, and minor intracranial hemorrhage and brain contusion. In 2 cases of bare handed injuries, internal carotid artery rupture occurred in the ophthalmic artery segment, accompanied by fatal intracranial hemorrhage and diffuse axonal injury, but no skull fracture. All 11 cases showed full-thickness rupture of the vessel wall, and the long axis of the wounds was perpendicular to those of the artery. Conclusion The incidence of intracranial internal carotid artery rupture in high-energy trauma events such as traffic accidents and high falls deserves attention. Injuries of the cavernous segment or ophthalmic segment might be more common. The main injury mechanism of intracranial internal carotid artery rupture might be that the blood vessels were pulled and the bone fragments caused damage.
Related Articles | Metrics
DNA Methylation Differences in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Anaphylaxis
LIU Ming-zhe, GUO Hua-lin, FENG Yan, et al.
2021, 37(2): 211-214.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2019.490414
Abstract ( 13 )   PDF (776KB) ( 12 )  
Objective To study the DNA methylation of nucleated cells in peripheral blood of patients died from anaphylactic shock caused by cephalosporin drugs and to provide a new research direction and basis for the forensic diagnosis of shock caused by drug hypersensitiveness. Methods Methylation microarray was used to detect DNA methylation of nucleated cells in peripheral blood of patients died from anaphylactic shock caused by cephalosporin drugs and normal subjects. Sequencing data and chip data were analyzed for differences in DNA methylation using R language methylkit, ChAMP package. Random forest algorithm was used to evaluate the importance of the DNA methylation differential sites. Results Differential sites of DNA methylation highly associated with anaphylaxis caused by cephalosporin drugs were obtained at loci such as ETS1, PRR23B and GNAS. Conclusion Cephalosporin allergy is associated with DNA methylation, and DNA methylation may be a new strategy for forensic identification of anaphylactic shock and death.
Related Articles | Metrics
Application of Maxillary Sinus Effusion Detection in Diagnosis of Drowning
CHEN Zhen, LIU Xiao-fei, FENG Hua, et al.
2021, 37(2): 215-219.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.400325
Abstract ( 14 )   PDF (677KB) ( 9 )  
Objective To study the imaging characteristics of maxillary sinus effusion in drowned bodies, to explore its morphological characteristics and value in the diagnosis of the cause of death, and to provide objective evidence to support the study of virtual anatomy of drowning. Methods The 154 postmortem CT examination cases (31 cases of drowning, 123 cases of non-drowning) of Beijing Public Security Bureau Forensic Center in 2019 were collected. The bodies of all cases were scanned by multi-layer spiral CT before double-blind reading by clinical imaging experts. Maxillary sinus of corpses with maxillary sinus effusion in imaging findings was punctured. The detection rate of maxillary sinus effusion was calculated. The CT value and volume of maxillary sinus effusion were measured on 3D DICOM workstation. Results The detection rate of maxillary sinus effusion in the drowning was 100%, the shape was horizontal liquid level, the volume was 1.2-11.2 mL, the CT value was 6.08-19.02 Hu, with an average value of 12.85 Hu. The detection rate of maxillary sinus effusion in non-drowning was 19.51% (24/123), the shape was wavy or irregular, and there were bubbles inside, the volume was 0.4-13.4 mL, the CT value was 23.68-77.75 Hu, with an average value of 42.08 Hu. The differences in CT value between the two groups had statistical significance. Conclusion The postmortem CT examination method can be used to observe the shape and measure the CT value of the maxillary sinus effusion in the bodies in water, which can be an auxiliary examination method for identification of drowning.
Related Articles | Metrics
Application of Automatic Nucleic Acid Extractor Combined with Vacuum Concentrator in Forensic Science
LI Shu-xia, SHEN Jin-jian, CAO Pei-jun, et al.
2021, 37(2): 220-224.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.500604
Abstract ( 8 )   PDF (943KB) ( 7 )  
Objective To explore the application value of automatic nucleic acid extractor combined with vacuum concentrator in forensic DNA extraction. Methods Gradient samples of human peripheral venous blood were collected at 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280 and 320 fold dilution. The samples of each gradient were treated with no inhibitor, black oil, rust, fruit acid, tin foil and indigo, respectively. The automatic nucleic acid extractor was used for DNA purification and extraction of the above samples. The extracted DNA eluent (6 μL) was taken for amplification directly, and the rest was concentrated by vacuum concentrator. DNA was amplified and examined using the Investigator 26plex QS kit before and after concentration. Results Only gradient samples treated with fruit acid obtained complete STR typing results at 40 fold dilution. The other 5 methods obtained complete STR typing results at 40-160 fold dilution. The results of STR typing after DNA concentration showed that the average peak height and detection rates of gene loci both increased to a certain extent, but the effect was not obvious. Conclusion The automatic nucleic acid extractor has an efficient inhibitor removal ability and high extracting efficiency of DNA. The vacuum concentrator can concentrate DNA samples to a certain extent. Combining the automatic nucleic acid extractor with the vacuum concentrator can improve the examination success rate of forensic materials.
Related Articles | Metrics
Research Progress on Pathological Fibrosis of Sinoatrial Node
WANG Wei, ZHANG Shi-lin, LIU Fang-fang, et al.
2021, 37(2): 225-232.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.400820
Abstract ( 18 )   PDF (711KB) ( 33 )  
Human heart rhythm is mainly regulated and controlled by the sinoatrial node. Fibrosis plays an important regulating role in adjusting the structural and functional integrity of the sinoatrial node pacemaker complex. In physiological state, the fibrosis degree of sinoatrial node is negatively correlated with heart rate, positively correlated with age and heart size, and can maintain a relatively stable heart rate. Pathological fibrosis of sinoatrial node can induce various types of arrhythmias which can result in sudden death. Determination of the mechanisms related to sinoatrial node pathological fibrosis could provide a target for clinical treatment of sinoatrial node fibrosis and diagnosis basis for forensic pathologists. This paper reviews the main mechanism of sinoatrial node pathological fibrosis, including abnormal activation of cardiac fibroblast cells in sinoatrial node, hyperplasia of epicardial adipose tissue, calcium clock disorder, artery stenosis, etc., introduces the test methods, diagnostic criteria as well as its role in sudden cardiac death and discusses the potential application, to provide reference for relevant research and application.
Related Articles | Metrics
Characteristics and Forensic Identification of Blunt Vertebral Artery Injury
LU Mei-gui, ZHANG Geng, WU Xue-mei, et al.
2021, 37(2): 233-238,255.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2019.491015
Abstract ( 23 )   PDF (2131KB) ( 27 )  
Blunt vertebral artery injury occurs frequently in forensic practice. However, injuries of the vertebral artery are easily ignored or overlooked because of its relatively deep location. Through literatures review, this paper finds that the manners of blunt vertebral artery injury are varied and one or more injury mechanisms may be involved simultaneously. Patients often undergo immediate or delayed cerebral apoplexy as well as compression and injury of surrounding structures, due to direct injury or secondary aneurysm or dissection, resulting in disability or death. Diseases such as, vertebral atherosclerosis and dysplasia can increase the disability and death risk and the difficulty of forensic identification. In forensic identification, the details of the case should be considered. For cases of suspected vertebral artery injury, in addition to routine examination of intracranial segment, attention should be paid to the examination of extracranial segment. If conditions permit, angiography can be used prior to or during the autopsy to improve the identification efficiency and accuracy of opinions.
Related Articles | Metrics
Research Progress on Computer-Aided Skeleton-Based Individual Identification in Forensic Radiology
LI Yuan, ZHAO Huan, LIANG Wei-bo, et al.
2021, 37(2): 239-247.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.200319
Abstract ( 18 )   PDF (600KB) ( 24 )  
Individual identification based on imaging data of the skeleton of a corpse is a key technique for forensic identification. To reduce the influence of artificial factors, computer-aided semi-automatic or automatic individual identification has become one of the research directions of skeleton-based individual identification in forensic radiology. Therefore, this paper reviews and summarizes literatures related to estimation of anthropological information such as, age and sex by computer-aided forensic radiology bone characteristics and individual identification based on bone imaging characteristics, in order to provide reference on skeleton-based individual identification in forensic radiology.
Related Articles | Metrics
Analysis Methods of Common Herbicides in Biological Material and Research Progress
YUE Lin-na, XIANG Ping, SONG Fen-yun, et al.
2021, 37(2): 248-255.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2019.390902
Abstract ( 15 )   PDF (687KB) ( 15 )  
Herbicides are a kind of chemical or biological agents that can effectively destroy or inhibit weed growth. Because of the widespread and frequent use of herbicides, herbicide poisonings have often been reported. At present, the main species reported to have caused poisoning are paraquat, diquat, glyphosate, and glufosinate. The main instrumental analysis method is LC-MS. This paper reviews the research progress on analysis methods of common herbicides in biological material and their application, summarizes the sample pretreatment and instrumental analysis situation of qualitative and quantitative analysis of herbicides in biological material, and collects test data of actual poisoning cases, to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment and forensic identification of herbicide poisoning.
Related Articles | Metrics
2021, 37(2): 256-266.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.410304
Abstract ( 10 )   PDF (801KB) ( 17 )  
Related Articles | Metrics