25 February 2024, Volume 40 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
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Original Articles
Visualization Analysis of Artificial Intelligence Literature in Forensic Research
Yi-ming DONG, Chun-mei ZHAO, Nian-nian CHEN, Li LUO, Zhan-peng LI, Li-kai WANG, Xiao-qian LI, Ting-gan REN, Cai-rong GAO, Xiang-jie GUO
2024, 40(1): 1-14.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2023.430311
Abstract ( 201 )   HTML ( 30 )   PDF (2973KB) ( 212 )  

Objective To analyze the literature on artificial intelligence in forensic research from 2012 to 2022 in the Web of Science Core Collection Database, to explore research hotspots and developmental trends. Methods A total of 736 articles on artificial intelligence in forensic medicine in the Web of Science Core Collection Database from 2012 to 2022 were visualized and analyzed through the literature measuring tool CiteSpace. The authors, institution, country (region), title, journal, keywords, cited references and other information of relevant literatures were analyzed. Results A total of 736 articles published in 220 journals by 355 authors from 289 institutions in 69 countries (regions) were identified, with the number of articles published showing an increasing trend year by year. Among them, the United States had the highest number of publications and China ranked the second. Academy of Forensic Science had the highest number of publications among the institutions. Forensic Science International, Journal of Forensic Sciences, International Journal of Legal Medicine ranked high in publication and citation frequency. Through the analysis of keywords, it was found that the research hotspots of artificial intelligence in the forensic field mainly focused on the use of artificial intelligence technology for sex and age estimation, cause of death analysis, postmortem interval estimation, individual identification and so on. Conclusion It is necessary to pay attention to international and institutional cooperation and to strengthen the cross-disciplinary research. Exploring the combination of advanced artificial intelligence technologies with forensic research will be a hotspot and direction for future research.

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Original Article
Correlation Analysis and Comparison of Adult CE-Chirp ABR Response Threshold and Pure Tone Hearing Threshold
He-ying CHENG, Yun-ge ZHANG, Yan CHEN, Sun YIN, Ming LÜ, Chun-xiao LI
2024, 40(1): 15-19.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.210101
Abstract ( 104 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (617KB) ( 180 )  

Objective To study the application of CE-Chirp in the evaluation of hearing impairment in forensic medicine by testing the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in adults using CE-Chirp to analyze the relationship between the V-wave response threshold of CE-Chirp ABR test and the pure tone hearing threshold. Methods Subjects (aged 20-77 with a total of 100 ears) who underwent CE-Chirp ABR test in Changzhou De’an Hospital from January 2018 to June 2019 were selected to obtain the V-wave response threshold, and pure tone air conduction hearing threshold tests were conducted at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kHz, respectively, to obtain pure tone listening threshold. The differences and statistical differences between the average pure tone hearing threshold and V-wave response threshold were compared in different hearing levels and different age groups. The correlation, differences and statistical differences between the two tests at each frequency were analyzed for all subjects. The linear regression equation for estimating pure tone hearing threshold for all subjects CE-Chirp ABR V-wave response threshold was established, and the feasibility of the equation was tested. Results There was no statistical significance in the CE-Chirp ABR response threshold and pure tone hearing threshold difference between different hearing level groups and different age groups (P>0.05). There was a good correlation between adult CE-Chirp ABR V-wave response threshold and pure tone hearing threshold with statistical significance (P<0.05), and linear regression analysis showed a significant linear correlation between the two (P<0.05). Conclusion The use of CE-Chirp ABR V-wave response threshold can be used to evaluate subjects’ pure tone hearing threshold under certain conditions, and can be used as an audiological test method for forensic hearing impairment assessment.

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Original Articles
A Bibliometric and Visual Analysis of the Current Status and Trends of Forensic Mixed Stain Research
Qing-wei FAN, Ling LI, Hui-ling YANG, Ting-ting DENG, Dong-dong XU, Yun WANG, Bing DU, Jiang-wei YAN
2024, 40(1): 20-29.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2022.521010
Abstract ( 223 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (4355KB) ( 1096 )  

Objective To explore the context and hotspot changes of forensic mixed stain research through bibliometric approach. Methods The literature of forensic mixed stain included in the core collection of Web of Science database from 2011 to 2022 were collected as the study object, and the annual publication number, countrie (region), institution, journal, keywords, etc. were bibliometrically and visually analyzed using the R-based Bibliometrix 1.1.6 package and VOSviewer 1.6.18 software. Results A total of 732 articles on forensic mixed stain were included from 2011 to 2022, with the annual number of articles published and the annual citation frequency showing a steady increase year by year. Among the 59 countries (regions) with the most published articles, the United States ranked first with 246 articles, followed by China with 153 articles. The literature came from 104 journals, and the total number of articles published in the top 10 journals was 633. FORENSIC SCI INT GENET ranked first with 307 articles. Visual analysis using VOSviewer software showed that keywords could be divided into four research clusters, namely the genetic marker development group (blue), the mixed stain typing analysis theory group (red), the sequencing analysis group (yellow), and the case sample research group (green). It can be divided into four development stages in terms of different time periods: early development (2011—2013), middle development (2014—2016), rapid development (2017—2020) and latest development (2021—2022). Conclusion The number of publications by domestic and foreign scholars in the study of mixed stain in forensic science is showing a relatively stable trend. Machine learning, next generation sequencing and other research have been the hottest topics that have attracted the most attention in recent years, which is expected to further develop the theory of mixed stain typing and sequencing analysis in forensic mixed stain research.

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Original Article
Rapid Screening of 34 Emerging Contaminants in Surface Water by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS
Chen-shan LÜ, Yi-xuan CAO, Xiao-xi MU, Hai-yan CUI, Tao WANG, Zhi-wen WEI, Ke-ming YUN, Meng HU
2024, 40(1): 30-36.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2022.320301
Abstract ( 86 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (791KB) ( 237 )  

Objective To establish a rapid screening method for 34 emerging contaminants in surface water by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Methods The pretreatment conditions of solid phase extraction (SPE) were optimized by orthogonal experimental design and the surface water samples were concentrated and extracted by Oasis® HLB and Oasis® MCX SPE columns in series. The extracts were separated by Kinetex® EVO C18 column, with gradient elution of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and 0.1% formic acid methanol solution. Q-TOF-MS ‘fullscan’ and ‘targeted MS/MS’ modes were used to detect 34 emerging contaminants and to establish a database with 34 emerging contaminants precursor ion, product ion and retention times. Results The 34 emerging contaminants exhibited good linearity in the concentration range respectively and the correlation coefficients (r) were higher than 0.97. The limit of detection was 0.2-10 ng/L and the recoveries were 81.2%-119.2%. The intra-day precision was 0.78%-18.70%. The method was applied to analyze multiple surface water samples and 6 emerging contaminants were detected, with a concentration range of 1.93-157.71 ng/L. Conclusion The method is simple and rapid for screening various emerging contaminants at the trace level in surface water.

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Original Articles
Toxicokinetics of MDMA and Its Metabolite MDA in Rats
Wei-guang YU, Qiang HE, Zheng-di WANG, Cheng-jun TIAN, Jin-kai WANG, Qian ZHENG, Fei REN, Chao ZHANG, You-mei WANG, Peng XU, Zhi-wen WEI, Ke-ming YUN
2024, 40(1): 37-42.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2022.320201
Abstract ( 87 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (763KB) ( 102 )  

Objective To investigate the toxicokinetic differences of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolite 4,5-methylene dioxy amphetamine (MDA) in rats after single and continuous administration of MDMA, providing reference data for the forensic identification of MDMA. Methods A total of 24 rats in the single administration group were randomly divided into 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg experimental groups and the control group, with 6 rats in each group. The experimental group was given intraperitoneal injection of MDMA, and the control group was given intraperitoneal injection of the same volume of normal saline as the experimental group. The amount of 0.5 mL blood was collected from the medial canthus 5 min, 30 min, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h, 12 h after administration. In the continuous administration group, 24 rats were randomly divided into the experimental group (18 rats) and the control group (6 rats). The experimental group was given MDMA 7 d by continuous intraperitoneal injection in increments of 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 mg/kg per day, respectively, while the control group was given the same volume of normal saline as the experimental group by intraperitoneal injection. On the eighth day, the experimental rats were randomly divided into 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg dose groups, with 6 rats in each group. MDMA was injected intraperitoneally, and the control group was injected intraperitoneally with the same volume of normal saline as the experimental group. On the eighth day, 0.5 mL of blood was taken from the medial canthus 5 min, 30 min, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h, 12 h after administration. Liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry was used to detect MDMA and MDA levels, and statistical software was employed for data analysis. Results In the single-administration group, peak concentrations of MDMA and MDA were reached at 5 min and 1 h after administration, respectively, with the largest detection time limit of 12 h. In the continuous administration group, peak concentrations were reached at 30 min and 1.5 h after administration, respectively, with the largest detection time limit of 10 h. Nonlinear fitting equations for the concentration ratio of MDMA and MDA in plasma and administration time in the single-administration group and continuous administration group were as follows: T=10.362C-1.183, R2=0.974 6; T=7.397 3C-0.694, R2=0.961 5 (T: injection time; C: concentration ratio of MDMA to MDA in plasma). Conclusions The toxicokinetic data of MDMA and its metabolite MDA in rats, obtained through single and continuous administration, including peak concentration, peak time, detection time limit, and the relationship between concentration ratio and administration time, provide a theoretical and data foundation for relevant forensic identification.

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Cases Study
Forensic Identification and Evaluation of 25 Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy Medical Damage Cases
Yong YU, Ying-jie WANG, Yun-fei JIA, Bao-jing HUANG, Song-yue HE, Chuan-chuan LIU
2024, 40(1): 43-49.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2022.220302
Abstract ( 160 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (686KB) ( 174 )  

Objective To analyze the high risk factors of obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP), and to explore how to evaluate the relationship between fault medical behavior and OBPP in the process of medical damage forensic identification. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out on 25 cases of medical damage liability disputes related to OBPP from 2017 to 2021 in Beijing Fayuan Judicial Science Evidence Appraisal Center. The shortcomings of hospitals in birth weight assessment, delivery mode selection, labor process observation and shoulder dystocia management, and the causal relationship between them and the damage consequences of the children were summarized. Results Fault medical behavior was assessed as the primary cause in 2 cases, equal cause in 10 cases, secondary cause in 8 cases, minor cause in 1 case, no causal relationship in 1 case, and unclear causal force in 3 cases. Conclusion In the process of forensic identification of OBPP, whether medical behaviors fulfill diagnosis and treatment obligations should be objectively analyzed from the aspects of prenatal evaluation, delivery mode notification, standardized use of oxytocin, standard operation of shoulder dystocia, etc. Meanwhile, it is necessary to fully consider the objective risk of different risk factors and the difficulty of injury prevention, and comprehensively evaluate the causal force of fault medical behavior in the damage consequences.

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Technique and Application
Establishment and Application of a 42-plex Microhaplotype Assay in Forensic Genetics
Peng YUN, An-qi CHEN, Li-qin CHEN, Cheng-tao LI
2024, 40(1): 50-58.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2023.530803
Abstract ( 66 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (808KB) ( 92 )  

Objective To establish and forensically verify a 42 microhaplotypes (mircohaps, MHs) multiplex assay system based on next-generation sequencing (NGS), and to explore the application value of this system in the practice of forensic genetics. Methods A total of 42 highly polymorphic MHs were selected from previous studies, and sequenced by the MiSeq FGxTM platform to verify the repeata-bility, sensitivity, specificity, stability, and mixture analysis ability of the detection system. Through population genetic investigation of 102 unrelated Chinese Han individuals in Liyang City, Jiangsu Province, China, the application value of this system in forensic genetics was evaluated. Results The sequencing repeatability of the 42-plex MHs assay was 100% and the sensitivity was as low as 0.062 5 ng. The system had the ability to withstand the interference of indigo (≤2 500 ng/μL), humic acid (≤9 ng/μL), hemoglobin(≤20 μmol), and urea (≤200 ng/μL) and to detect mixtures of 2 people (1∶19), 3 people (1∶1∶9) and 4 people (1∶1∶1∶9). Based on 102 individual data, the combined power of discrimination and the combined power of exclusion were 1-3.45×10-30 and 1-3.77×10-11, respectively, and the average effect value of alleles was 2.899. Conclusion The 42-plex MHs assay was successfully established in this study and this system has high repeatability and sensitivity, good anti-jamming ability and mixture analysis ability. The 42 MHs are highly polymorphism and have good application value in individual identification and paternity testing.

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Review
Pathological Characteristics and Classification of Unstable Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaques
Yun-hong XING, Yang LI, Wen-zheng WANG, Liang-liang WANG, Le-le SUN, Qiu-xiang DU, Jie CAO, Guang-long HE, Jun-hong SUN
2024, 40(1): 59-63.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2022.421203
Abstract ( 125 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (607KB) ( 248 )  

Important forensic diagnostic indicators of sudden death in coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, such as acute or chronic myocardial ischemic changes, sometimes make it difficult to locate the ischemic site due to the short death process, the lack of tissue reaction time. In some cases, the deceased died of sudden death on the first-episode, resulting in difficulty for medical examiners to make an accurate diagnosis. However, clinical studies on coronary instability plaque revealed the key role of coronary spasm and thrombosis caused by their lesions in sudden coronary death process. This paper mainly summarizes the pathological characteristics of unstable coronary plaque based on clinical medical research, including plaque rupture, plaque erosion and calcified nodules, as well as the influencing factors leading to plaque instability, and briefly describes the research progress and technique of the atherosclerotic plaques, in order to improve the study on the mechanism of sudden coronary death and improve the accuracy of the forensic diagnosis of sudden coronary death by diagnosing different pathologic states of coronary atherosclerotic plaques.

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Research Progress on Biological Evidence Identification in Fire Scenes
Yan-ru YAO, Jing JIN, Ying-jie WANG, Jin-zhuan ZHANG, Ying-zhe LI, Yong-xin XU
2024, 40(1): 64-69.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2022.520501
Abstract ( 142 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (669KB) ( 312 )  

Biological evidence is relatively common evidence in criminal cases, and it has strong probative power because it carries DNA information for individual identification. At the scene of fire-related cases, the complex thermal environment, the escape of trapped people, the firefighting and rescue operations, and the deliberate destruction of criminal suspects will all affect the biological evidence in the fire scene. Scholars at home and abroad have explored and studied the effectiveness of biological evidence identification in fire scenes, and found that the blood stains, semen stains, bones, etc. are the main biological evidence which can be easily recovered with DNA in fire scenes. In order to analyze the research status and development trend of biological evidence in fire scenes, this paper systematically sorts out the relevant research, mainly including the soot removal technology, appearance method of typical biological evidence, and possibility of identifying other biological evidence. This paper also prospects the next step of research direction, in order to provide reference for the identification of biological evidence and improve the value of biological evidence in fire scenes.

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The Latest Research Progress on Cell-Free DNA and Prospects of Its Forensic Application
Wen-jing HU, Ting-ting YANG, Ya-ya WANG, Jiang-wei YAN
2024, 40(1): 70-76.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2022.521001
Abstract ( 142 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (662KB) ( 283 )  

In recent years, with the continuous progress of DNA extraction and detection technology, cell-free DNA(cfDNA)has been widely used in the life science field, and its potential application value in forensic identification is becoming more and more obvious. This paper reviews the concept, formation mechanism, and classification of cfDNA,etc., and describes the latest research progress of cfDNA in personal identification of crime scene touch DNA samples and non-invasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPPT). Meanwhile, this paper summarizes the potential application of cfDNA in injury inference, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of common cfDNA analysis methods and techniques, and its application prospects, to provide a new idea for the wide application of cfDNA in the field of forensic science.

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