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25 August 2022, Volume 38 Issue 4 Previous Issue   
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Original Article
Screening Biomarkers of Sudden Coronary Death Based on mRNA Expression Profile of Rat Myocardial Tissues
Xiang-jie GUO, Hao LI, Ya-qin BAI, Peng WU, Chun-mei ZHAO, Yi-ming DONG, Nian-nian CHEN, Ke-ming YUN, Cai-rong GAO
2022, 38(4): 443-451.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2022.420509
Abstract ( 69 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (5188KB) ( 88 )  

Objective To explore the differential expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) in myocardial tissues of rats with sudden coronary death (SCD), and to provide ideas for the forensic identification of SCD. Methods The rat SCD model was established, and the transcriptome sequencing was performed by next-generation sequencing technology. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in myocardial tissues of SCD rats were screened by using the R package limma. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by using the STRING database and Cytoscape 3.8.2 on DEG, and hub genes were screened based on cytoHubba plug-in. Finally, the R package clusterProfiler was used to analyze the biological function and signal pathway enrichment of the selected DEG. Results A total of 177 DEGs were associated with SCD and were mainly involved in the renin-angiotensin system and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. The genes including angiotensinogen (AGT), complement component 4a (C4a), Fos proto-oncogene (FOS) and others played key roles in the development of SCD. Conclusion Genes such as AGT, C4a, FOS and other genes are expected to be potential biomarkers for forensic identification of SCD. The study based on mRNA expression profile can provide a reference for forensic identification of SCD.

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Reconstruction and Quantitative Evaluation of Blunt Injury Cases by Finite Element Method
Hai-yan LI, Wen-gang LIU, Shi-hai CUI, Guang-long HE, Peng XIA, Li-juan HE, Wen-le LÜ
2022, 38(4): 452-458.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.401215
Abstract ( 96 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (4513KB) ( 82 )  

Objective To reconstruct the cases of acceleration craniocerebral injury caused by blunt in forensic cases by finite element method (FEM), and to study the biomechanical mechanism and quantitative evaluation method of blunt craniocerebral injury. Methods Based on the established and validated finite element head model of Chinese people, the finite element model of common injury tool was established with reference to practical cases in the forensic identification, and the blunt craniocerebral injury cases were reconstructed by simulation software. The cases were evaluated quantitatively by analyzing the biomechanical parameters such as intracranial pressure, von Mises stress and the maximum principal strain of brain tissue. Results In case 1, when the left temporal parietal was hit with a round wooden stick for the first time, the maximum intracranial pressure was 359 kPa; the maximum von Mises stress of brain tissue was 3.03 kPa at the left temporal parietal; the maximum principal strain of brain tissue was 0.016 at the left temporal parietal. When the right temporal was hit with a square wooden stick for the second time, the maximum intracranial pressure was 890 kPa; the maximum von Mises stress of brain tissue was 14.79 kPa at the bottom of right temporal lobe; the maximum principal strain of brain tissue was 0.103 at the bottom of the right temporal lobe. The linear fractures occurred at the right temporal parietal skull and the right middle cranial fossa. In case 2, when the forehead and left temporal parietal were hit with a round wooden stick, the maximum intracranial pressure was 370 kPa and 1 241 kPa respectively, the maximum von Mises stress of brain tissue was 3.66 kPa and 26.73 kPa respectively at the frontal lobe and left temporal parietal lobe, and the maximum principal strain of brain tissue was 0.021 and 0.116 respectively at the frontal lobe and left temporal parietal lobe. The linear fracture occurred at the left posterior skull of the coronary suture. The damage evaluation indicators of the simulation results of the two cases exceeded their damage threshold, and the predicted craniocerebral injury sites and fractures were basically consistent with the results of the autopsy. Conclusion The FEM can quantitatively evaluate the degree of blunt craniocerebral injury. The FEM combined with traditional method will become a powerful tool in forensic craniocerebral injury identification and will also become an effective means to realize the visualization of forensic evidence in court.

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Effects of Chronic Restraint Stress on Apoptosis of Amygdala Cells in Rats
Li-ru DONG, Jun-bo LIAN, Shuang-jie HUO, Dan LUO, Hu YANG, Xu-dong SONG, Xiao-jing ZHANG, Bin CONG
2022, 38(4): 459-467.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.410101
Abstract ( 53 )   PDF (3560KB) ( 62 )  

Objective To explore the damage effects of chronic restraint stress (CRS) on amygdala cells through the rat CRS model. Methods The rat CRS model was established, and the changes in body weight and adrenal mass in control group and CRS group were monitored at 1 d, 7 d, 14 d and 21 d. The behavior changes were evaluated by the percentage of retention time of open arms and open arm entries using the elevated plus maze (EPM). ELISA was used to detect the concentrations of rat’s corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol. The changes of expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in amygdala were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Ultrastructure changes of glial cell were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The apoptosis rate of amygdala was measured by flow cytometry. Results Compared with the control group at the same time points, body weight of CRS 1 d, 7 d, 14 d and 21 d groups increased slowly, but adrenal mass increased significantly; the serum level of CRH, cortisol and ACTH increased significantly at 7 d, 14 d and 21 d respectively; the expression of GR in amygdala was increased while that of GFAP was decreased; EPM test suggested that the percentage of retention time of open arms and open arm entries decreased significantly after 14 d. The CRS group showed different degrees of glial cell damage in amygdala, and the apoptosis rate of glial cell was significantly increased in 21 d group. Conclusion This study successfully established a CRS model in rats, and anxiety-like behavioral changes in model rats may be caused by apoptosis of amygdala astrocytes.

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Application of Linear Regression Model of Gpnmb Gene in Rat Injury Time Estimation
Yan-ru XI, Yuan-xin LIU, Na FENG, Zhen GU, Jun-hong SUN, Jie CAO, Qian-qian JIN, Qiu-xiang DU
2022, 38(4): 468-472.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.400907
Abstract ( 32 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (724KB) ( 52 )  

Objective To investigate the effects of injury time, postmortem interval (PMI) and postmortem storage temperature on mRNA expression of glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (Gpnmb), and to establish a linear regression model between Gpnmb mRNA expression and injury time, to provide aimed at providing potential indexes for injury time estimation. Methods Test group SD rats were anesthetized and subjected to blunt contusion and randomly divided into 0 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 16 h, 20 h and 24 h groups after injury, with 18 rats in each group. After cervical dislocation, 6 rats in each group were collected and stored at 0 ℃, 16 ℃ and 26 ℃, respectively. The muscle tissue samples of quadriceps femoris injury were collected at 0 h, 12 h and 24 h postmortem at the same temperature. The grouping method and treatment method of the rats in the validation group were the same as above. The expression of Gpnmb mRNA in rat skeletal muscle was detected by RT-qPCR. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between Gpnmb mRNA expression and injury time, PMI, and postmortem storage temperature. SPSS 25.0 software was used to construct a linear regression model, and the validation group data was used for the back-substitution test. Results The expression of Gpnmb mRNA continued to increase with the prolongation of injury time, and the expression level was highly correlated with injury time (P<0.05), but had little correlation with PMI and postmortem storage temperature (P>0.05). The linear regression equation between injury time (y) and Gpnmb mRNA relative expression (x) was y=0.611 x+4.489. The back-substitution test proved that the prediction of the model was accurate. Conclusion The expression of Gpnmb mRNA is almost not affected by the PMI and postmortem storage temperature, but is mainly related to the time of injury. Therefore, a linear regression model can be established to infer the time of injury.

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Identification of the New Psychoactive Substance Eutylone
Qian-ya DENG, Wen-juan SUN, Si-yang HE, Kua-dou WANG, Yong-sheng CHEN, Wei WANG, Chen LIANG
2022, 38(4): 473-477.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.310503
Abstract ( 48 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1052KB) ( 71 )  

Objective To establish a method to identify unknown sample based on the combined use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF-MS), ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS) and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) technique. Methods The unknown sample was directly analyzed by FTIR. The unknown sample was dissolved in methanol solution containing internal standard SKF525A and the supernatant was detected by GC-QTOF-MS and UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS. The unknown sample was dissolved in methanol-d4 solution for structural analysis of 1H-NMR. Results The characteristic absorption peaks of FTIR spectra obtained from unknown sample were 1 682 (C=O bond), 1 503, 1 488, 1 436, 1 363, 1 256, 1 092, 1 035, 935, 840 and 800 cm-1, the characteristic fragment ions (m/z) of GC-QTOF-MS were 86.096 4 (base peak), 58.065 1, 149.023 5, 121.028 6 and 65.038 6, the accurate mass [M+H]+ detected by UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS was 236.127 7. The sample was identified as synthetic cathinone new psychoactive substance Eutylone by 1H-NMR. Conclusion The method established in this study can be used for structural confirmation of Eutylone.

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CiteSpace-Based Visualization Analysis of Forensic Research in China from 2010 to 2019
Hai-biao ZHU, Hong-xia LIU, Yu-cong WANG, Yi-xun MA, Dong ZHAO, Xu WANG, Tian-tong YANG
2022, 38(4): 478-485.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.401008
Abstract ( 33 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (2674KB) ( 51 )  

Objective To analyze the research status of forensic medicine in China from 2010 to 2019, obtain the development trend of forensic medicine and explore the hotspots and research frontiers. Methods The forensic medical academic papers published on China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database from 2010 to 2019 were collected. CiteSpace 5.7.R1, an information visualization analysis software, was used to analyze publication organizations, authors, keywords, and other elements. Results The majority of the research institutions were universities, provincial and ministerial scientific research and forensic institutions. Forensic pathology was still an important branch of forensic medicine and a popular research direction. The “polymorphism” and “Y chromosome” had been the research hotspots in recent years. “Medical damage” and “standard” were the most novel studies. Conclusion In order to provide scientific basis and research direction for forensic research, this paper analyzes the cooperation network, research hotspots and research innovation in forensic research.

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Cases Study
Analysis of Thoracic Aorta Injury in 27 Road Traffic Accident Deaths
Wei-quan YE, Jia HE, Zhao-bin WU, Liu-xin CAI
2022, 38(4): 486-489.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.410502
Abstract ( 170 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (581KB) ( 133 )  

Objective To analyze the characteristics of thoracic aorta injury in road traffic accidents, to provide data reference for forensic identification. Methods The data of 27 traffic accident death cases with thoracic aorta injury were analyzed according to relevant parameters including sex, age, mode of transportation, and thoracic aorta injury. Results Aortic injury in traffic accidents was significantly more in males than females, and 74.1% cases were in the age range of 31-70 years. The most common mode of transportation was the motorcycle, followed by electric bike, most of which crashed with trucks. Most cases were accompanied by rib fractures and lung injuries. Thoracic aorta injury was the most common in ascending aorta, followed by aortic arch and thoracic aorta. Ascending aorta injury was most likely to occur in the range of 0-<1.6 cm from the aortic valve, while it was rare over 2.6 cm. Taking the aortic valve as the reference, the most common locations of injury were the anterior semilunar valve, followed by the right posterior semilunar valve and the left posterior semilunar valve. Thoracic aortic rupture occurred in 63.0% cases, and intima and media lacerations only occurred in 37.0% cases. A few deceased had aortic diseases. Conclusion The proximal part of the ascending aorta is prone to be injured because of the large external force of traffic accidents. The medical examiner should carefully examine the aortic injury in traffic accident deaths, and evaluate the relationship between the injury and the disease according to the condition and degree of aortic injury.

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Forensic Analysis of 9 Cases of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy
Yu DU, Guan-ying HE, Lei YAO, Peng REN, Li PANG, Zhen-yu ZHANG, Wei-dong WANG
2022, 38(4): 490-494.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.400616
Abstract ( 96 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1392KB) ( 97 )  

Objective To analyze the case, scene and forensic pathological characteristics of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), to provide a practical basis for forensic identification. Methods A total of 9 autopsy cases of SUDEP were collected. The basic information of the cases, the scene characteristics, the forensic pathological changes, the common drugs and antiepileptic drug test results, and pericardial fluid biochemical test results were analyzed. Results All of the 9 cases were male epilepsy patients died during sleep at night, the age of death was (37.1±8.6) years, and the course of epilepsy was (21.3±5.6) years. Six corpses were in prone position and three in left lateral position. The hemorrhage of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, sternal thyroid muscle and sternohyoid muscle were found with 8 cases, 5 cases and 4 cases, respectively, all of them were unilateral. Six cases had bilateral hemorrhage of pectoralis minor muscle. Brain edema, phagocytosis of frontotemporal neurons and gliosis, cardiac fibers bend in wavy patterns and eosinophilic staining enhancement, pulmonary edema, pulmonary congestion, alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary small bronchiole wall shrinking, tubular proteinuria and pancreatic parenchymal hemorrhage were the common histopathological changes. The biochemical test results of pericardial fluid indicated that there were myocardial ischemic damage. Conclusion Young male, early onset, long course of disease, sleep in the prone position, poor drug compliance or combination, epileptic seizure may be the risk factors of SUDEP. Cardiac dysfunction and respiratory depression might be the main death mechanism of SUDEP.

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Forensic Analysis of 9 Poisoning Death Cases Caused by Oral Administration of Diphenidol
Liu YANG, Ping XIANG, Hong-xiao DENG, Huo-sheng QIANG, Yong-hui DANG, Yan SHI, Bao-hua SHEN
2022, 38(4): 495-499.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.301101
Abstract ( 93 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (764KB) ( 105 )  

Objective To analyze the characteristics of diphenidol poisoning cases and to provide clues and technical means for the identification of such cases. Methods Biological samples of 9 deaths caused by diphenidol poisoning were detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), and the characteristics of these cases were analyzed retrospectively. Results Most of the deaths caused by diphenidol poisoning were young females. The dosage was between 60 and 300 tablets, and the mass concentration of diphenidol in the postmortem blood ranged from 0.87 to 99.00 μg/mL. There was no correlation between the dosage and the concentration of diphenidol in the blood. Conclusion Diphenidol poisoning has the characteristics of high concealment and lethality. More attention should be paid to suicide cases, and diphenidol should be recommended as a routine detection item to avoid missing detection.

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Technique and Application
Genetic Polymorphism of 16 X-STR Loci in Xinjiang Uygur Population
Chun-yan YUAN, Ruo-cheng XIA, Su-hua ZHANG, Li-qin CHEN, Ya-li WANG, Yi-ling QU, Guang-yuan YANG, Xin-yu DONG, Si-yu CHAI, Cheng-tao LI, Rui-yang TAO
2022, 38(4): 500-506.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.511103
Abstract ( 50 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (768KB) ( 58 )  

Objective To study the genetic polymorphism and population genetic parameters of 16 X-STR loci in Xinjiang Uygur population. Methods The Goldeneye? DNA identification system 17X was used to amplify 16 X-STR loci in 502 unrelated individuals (251 females and 251 males). The amplified products were detected by 3130xl genetic analyzer. Allele frequencies and population genetic parameters were analyzed statistically. The genetic distances between Uygur and other 8 populations were calculated. Multidimensional scaling and phylogenetic tree were constructed based on genetic distance. Results In the 16 X-STR loci, a total of 67 alleles were detected in 502 Xinjiang Uygur unrelated individuals. The allele frequencies ranged from 0.001 3 to 0.572 4. PIC ranged from 0.568 8 to 0.855 3. The cumulative discrimination power in females and males were 0.999 999 999 999 999 and 0.999 999 999 743 071, respectively. The cumulative mean paternity exclusion chance in trios and in duos were 0.999 999 997 791 859 and 0.999 998 989 000 730, respectively. The genetic distance between Uygur population and Kazakh population was closer, and the genetic distance between Uygur and Han population was farther. Conclusion The 16 X-STR loci are highly polymorphic and suitable for identification in Uygur population, which can provide a powerful supplement for the study of individual identification, paternity identification and population genetics.

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Review
Strategies for Collection and Analysis of Samples in Simple Asphyxiant Gas Acute Poisoning Death Cases
Ping XIANG, Ning-guo LIU, Bao-hua SHEN, Huo-sheng QIANG, Min SHEN
2022, 38(4): 507-514.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.310501
Abstract ( 112 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (990KB) ( 179 )  

At present, the death cases of simple asphyxiant gas acute poisoning are increasing sharply. Common asphyxiant gases in death cases include nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, methane, propane, laughing gas, etc. Simple asphyxiant gas has no affinity for biological matrices and escapes quickly, which puts forward new requirements for autopsy procedures, selection and collection of samples, laboratory analysis and identification. This paper reviews the research and development process of death cases caused by simple asphyxiant gas acute poisoning and put forwards the collection and analysis strategy of the samples in such cases. The most valuable biological samples in such cases should be lung tissues associated with the airways, followed by brain tissue and cardiac blood. Gaseous samples from the esophageal cavity, tracheal cavity, pulmonary bronchi, gastric and cardiac areas are also recommended as valuable samples. In the case of postmortem examination, the gas should be injected into gas sample bag directly. Biological materials such as tissue and blood should be directly sealed in head-space vials and analyzed by using the headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

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The Role of Forensic Medicine in Responding to Emergencies and New Major Epidemics
Bo-feng ZHU, Bin CONG
2022, 38(4): 515-519.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.410716
Abstract ( 55 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (622KB) ( 88 )  

In recent years, human beings are constantly facing the threat of emerging infectious diseases. Forensic technology plays a unique role in responding to the emergencies and new epidemics. In epidemic prevention and control, forensic partitioners can provide important clues for the identification of vector animal species and the traceability of pathogen regions based on non-human DNA testing technology. In epidemic-related judicial practice, forensic partitioners bear more and more evidence responsibilities in dealing with biosafety laws-related issues, such as improper handling of epidemics and vaccine safety issues, which require forensic evidence. In terms of pathogen tracing, forensic physical evidence examinations identify species and individuals through biological materials extracted from the scene of death and autopsy of infectious diseases, are expected to provide informative clues for epidemiological investigations and point out the direction for pathogen tracing. In addition, forensic pathological examination can provide an important pathophysiological basis for determining the cause of death and the mechanism of death through autopsy, also offer necessary scientific evidence for clarifying the epidemiological characteristics of the epidemic and predicting the development trend of the epidemic.

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Research and Prospect of Visual Event-Related Potential in Traumatic Brain Injury and Visual Function Evaluation
Kang-jia JIN, Xu WANG
2022, 38(4): 520-525.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.200425
Abstract ( 31 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (602KB) ( 53 )  

Visual event-related potential (ERP) is an electrophysiological technique that objectively reflects the cognitive processing of stimulus from the perspective of detecting and recording neural electrophysiology responses using different paradigms of visual stimuli. Its endogenous components are closely related to advanced psychological activities. This article introduces the characteristics of main endogenous components including visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), N200 and P300, reviews the research progress of visual ERP in the sequelae of brain injury and objective evaluation of visual function, and prospects the application prospect of visual ERP in the field of forensic medicine.

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Research Progress on the Application of Human Oral Microbiome in Forensic Individual Identification
Shuang-shuang WANG, Feng SONG, Xiao-wen WEI, Hao-yu GU, Ke ZHANG, Yu-xiang ZHOU, Lan-rui JIANG, Hai-bo LUO
2022, 38(4): 526-532.  DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.510101
Abstract ( 46 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (633KB) ( 69 )  

The oral cavity is the second largest microbial bank in humans after the intestinal canal, colonizing a large number of microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, archaea, fungi and protozoa. The great number of microbial cells, good DNA stability, and individual has a unique microbial community, these characteristics make the human microbiome expected to become a new biomarker for forensic individual identification. This article describes the characteristics of human oral microorganisms and microbial molecular markers in detail, analyzes the potential application value of microorganisms in forensic individual identification, and reviews the research progress of human oral microorganisms in forensic individual identification.

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